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VINSE Colloquium Series: “New Functional Materials Enabled by 1D and 2D Nanomaterials ” Student Selected Speaker, Michael Strano, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 04/17/18

Posted by on Monday, December 4, 2017 in Events, VINSE Colloquium, .

April 17, 2018

4th Annual VINSE Student Selected Seminar Series

Michael Strano
Department of Chemical Engineering
Carbon P. Dubbs Professor
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

"New Functional Materials Enabled by 1D and 2D Nanomaterials"

4:10 PM, 134 Featheringill Hall
Refreshments served at 3:45

Abstract

Our laboratory has been interested in how 1D and 2D electronic materials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene and transition metal dichalogenides, can manipulate electrons, phonons and photons in unique ways.  This presentation will focus on recent advances from our laboratory at MIT to create materials with new combinations of functions and properties.  Two-dimensional (2D) materials can uniquely span the physical dimensions of a surrounding composite matrix in the limit of maximum reinforcement. However, the alignment and assembly of continuous 2D components at high volume fraction remain challenging. We use a stacking and folding method to generate aligned graphene/polycarbonate composites with as many as 320 parallel layers spanning 0.032 to 0.11millimeters in thickness that significantly increases the effective elastic modulus and strength at exceptionally low volume fractions of only 0.082%. An analogous transverse shear scrolling method generates Archimedean spiral fibers that demonstrate exotic, telescoping elongation at break of 110%, or 30 times greater than Kevlar. Both composites retain anisotropic electrical conduction along the graphene planar axis and transparency. These composites promise substantial mechanical reinforcement, electrical, and optical properties at highly reduced volume fraction.   Additionally, we present a theory, experimentally validated, of how fluid phase equilibria is significantly altered when confined to nanometer scale dimensions, creating the potential to embed tunable phase change materials, as well as unique liquid or solid properties encapsulated within new matricies.  Our theory, based on the Turbull number, can predict the solid/liquid coexistence for any fluid and any Nanoconfined system down to approximately 4 nm.  Below this limit, we show remarkable departures experimentally.  Fluid phase transitions inside isolated nanotubes deviate substantially from classical thermodynamics and also allow the study of ice nanotube (ice-NT) properties.  Herein, we measure, using two different techniques, the diameter dependent phase boundaries of ice-NTs within isolated CNTs 1.05, 1.06, 1.15, 1.24, and 1.52nm in diameter using Raman spectroscopy.  The results reveal both an exquisite sensitivity to diameter and substantially larger temperature elevations of the melting transition than theoretically predicted by as much as 100°C.  Dynamic water filling and reversible freezing transitions were marked by 2 to 5cm-1 shifts in the radial breathing mode (RBM) frequency, revealing reversible melting at 138°C and 102°C for 1.05 and 1.06nm single and double-walled CNTs, respectively.  A near-ambient phase change at 15°C was observed for 1.52nm CNT, whereas freezing inside 1.24nm tube was suppressed at -30°C.  These extreme phase transitions enable the study of ice-NT at high temperatures and their potential utilization as novel phase change materials.  These new fabrication and thermodynamic concepts promise fundamentally new materials with unique combinations of properties.

Bio

Professor Michael S. Strano is currently the Carbon P. Dubbs Professor of Chemical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  He received his B.S from Polytechnic University in Brooklyn, NY and Ph.D. from the University of Delaware both in Chemical Engineering.  He was a postdoctoral research fellow at Rice University in the departments of Chemistry and Physics under the guidance of Nobel Laureate Richard E. Smalley.  From 2003 to 2007, Michael was an Assistant Professor in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign before moving to MIT.  His research focuses on biomolecule/nanoparticle interactions and the surface chemistry of low dimensional systems, nano-electronics, nanoparticle separations, and applications of vibrational spectroscopy to nanotechnology. Michael is the recipient of numerous awards for his work, , including a 2005 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, a 2006 Beckman Young Investigator Award, the 2006 Coblentz Award for Molecular Spectroscopy, the Unilever Award from the American Chemical Society in 2007 for excellence in colloidal science, and the 2008 Young Investigator Award from the Materials Research Society, the 2008 Allen P. Colburn Award from the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, the 2009 Office of Naval Research, Young Investigator Award and selected as a member of Popular Science’s Brilliant 10 in 2009, 2011 Thompson Reuters, Ranked 19th of the Top 20 Chemists of the Decade 2000-2010, 2011 Kavli Frontiers of Science Fellow, National Academy of Sciences, 2012 Nanoscale Science and Engineering Forum Award, American Institute of Chemical Engineering, 2014 Blavatnik National Award for Young Scientist (Finalist; Chemistry) and 2014 Selection for Defense Science Study Group, Department of Defense.

 

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