Publications

“Up from Slavery? African American Intergenerational Economic Mobility since 1880” (with Marianne Wanamaker).  NBER Working Paper 23395.

“Unions, Workers, and Wages at the Peak of the American Labor Movement” (with Brantly Callaway).  Working paper. NBER Working Paper 23516. Forthcoming in Explorations in Economic History.

“Racial Differences in American Women’s Labor Market Outcomes: A Long-Run View” (with Michael Q. Moody). Forthcoming in Oxford Handbook on Women and the Economy.  Oxford University Press. NBER Working Paper 23397.

The Great Migration in Black and White: New Evidence on the Selection and Sorting of Southern Migrants” (with Marianne H. Wanamaker). Journal of Economic History, Vol. 75, No. 4 (December 2015): 947-992. (Revised version of NBER Working Paper 21384.)

Selection and Economic Gains in the Great Migration of African Americans: New Evidence from Linked Census Data” (with Marianne H. Wanamaker). American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, Vol. 6, No. 1 (January 2014): 220-252.  (Revised version of NBER Working Paper 19124.)

“The Origins and Persistence of Black-White Differences in Women’s Labor Force Participation from the Civil War to the Present” (with Leah Platt Boustan).  In Human Capital and History: The American Record, edited by L. Boustan, C. Frydman, and R. Margo.  Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2014. (NBER Working Paper 19040.)

Slum Clearance and Urban Renewal in the United States,” (with Katharine L. Shester). American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, Vol. 5. No. 1 (January 2013): 239-273. (Revised version of NBER Working Paper 17458.)

Home Ownership and Race from the End of the Civil War to the Present” (with Robert A. Margo). American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, Vol. 101, No. 3 (May 2011): 355-359.  (Revised version of NBER Working Paper 16665.)

Did Improvements in Household Technology Cause the Baby Boom? Evidence from Electrification, Appliance Diffusion, and the Amish” (with Martha J. Bailey). American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, Vol. 3, No. 2 (April 2011): 189-217.  (Revised version of NBER Working Paper 14641.)

The Economic Aftermath of the 1960s Riots in American Cities: Evidence from Property Values” (with Robert A. Margo). Journal of Economic History, Vol. 67, No. 4 (December 2007): 849 -883. (Revised version of NBER Working Paper 10493.)

A Neighborhood-Level View of Riots, Property Values, and Population Loss: Cleveland 1950-1980” (with Fred H. Smith). Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 44, No. 3 (July 2007): 365-386.

“Education, Migration, and Regional Wage Convergence in the United States.”  In Globalization and the New Comparative Economic History, edited by T. Hatton, K. O’Rourke, and A. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007, 165-191.

The Wage Gains of African-American Women in the 1940s” (with Martha J. Bailey). Journal of Economic History, Vol. 66, No. 3 (September 2006): 737-777. (Revised version of NBER Working Paper 10621.)

Evaluating the Role of Brown v. Board of Education in School Equalization, Desegregation, and the Income of African Americans” (with Orley Ashenfelter and Albert Yoon). American Law and Economics Review, Vol. 8, No. 2 (Summer 2006): 213-248.  (Revised version of NBER Working Paper 11394.)

The Political Economy of State Fair-Housing Laws Prior to 1968.” Social Science History, Vol. 30, No. 1 (Spring 2006): 15-49.  (Revised version of NBER Working Paper 10610.)

“Historical Perspectives on Racial Differences in Schooling in the United States” (with Robert A. Margo).  In Handbook of the Economics of Education: Volume 1, edited by E. Hanushek and F. Welch. New York: North-Holland, 2006, 107-154. (Revised version of NBER Working Paper 9770.)

“The Labor Market Effects of the 1960s Riots” (with Robert A. Margo). In Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs 2004, edited by W. Gale and J. Pack. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2004, 1-34. (Revised version of NBER Working Paper 10243.)

The Housing Market Impact of State-Level Anti-Discrimination Laws, 1960-1970.” Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 55, No. 3 (May 2004): 534-564. (Revised version of NBER Working Paper 9562.)

“The Declining Contribution of Socioeconomic Disparities to the Racial Gap in Infant Mortality Rates, 1920-1970” (with Melissa A. Thomasson). Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 70, No. 4 (April 2004): 746-777. (Revised version of NBER Working Paper 8836.)

“Race, Home Ownership, and Family Structure in Twentieth-Century America” (with Robert A. Margo).  In What Has Happened to the Quality of Life in the Advanced Industrialized Nations?, edited by E. Wolff.  New York: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2004, 187-213.

Race and the Value of Owner-Occupied Housing, 1940-1990” (with Robert A. Margo). Regional Science and Urban Economics, Vol. 33, No. 3 (May 2003): 255-286. (Revised version of NBER Working Paper 7749).

The Labor Market Impact of State-Level Anti-Discrimination Laws, 1940-1960.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Vol. 56, No. 2 (January 2003): 244-272. (Revised version of NBER Working Paper 8310.)

The Political Economy of State-Level Fair-Employment Laws, 1940-1964.” Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 40, No. 1 (January 2003): 24-51. doi:10.1016/S0014-4983(02)00010-4

Race, Roosevelt, and Wartime Production: Fair Employment in World War II Labor Markets.” American Economic Review, Vol. 91, No. 1 (March 2001): 272-286.

Capital-Goods Prices and Investment, 1870-1950” (with Jeffrey G. Williamson). Journal of Economic History, Vol. 61, No. 1 (March 2001): 59-94.  (Revised version of NBER Working Paper 7145.)

Race and Home Ownership: A Century-Long View” (with Robert A. Margo). Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 38, No. 1 (January 2001): 68-92.  (Revised version of NBER Working Paper 7749.)

Residential Segregation and Socioeconomic Outcomes: When Did Ghettos Go Bad?” (with Robert A. Margo). Economics Letters, Vol. 69, No. 2 (November 2000): 239-243.

African-American Economic Mobility in the 1940s: A Portrait from the Palmer Survey.” Journal of Economic History, Vol. 60, No. 3 (September 2000): 756-781.

Labor Mobility, Market Integration, and Wage Convergence in Late 19th Century India.” Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 36, No. 3 (July 1999): 246-277. doi:10.1006/exeh.1999.0718

“Labor Mobility in American and Indian Economic History.” Journal of Economic History, Vol. 59, No. 2 (June 1999): 469-472.

“Were Trade and Factor Mobility Substitutes in History?” (with Kevin O’Rourke and Jeffrey G. Williamson).  In Migration: The Controversies and the Evidence, edited by R. Faini, J. de Melo, and K. Zimmerman.  Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999, 227-260. (Revised version of NBER Working Paper 6059.)

When the Tide Turned: Immigration and the Delay of the Great Black Migration.” Journal of Economic History, Vol. 57, No. 3 (September 1997): 607-632.

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