William Franke is Professor of Comparative Literature and Religious Studies at Vanderbilt University and Professor of Philosophy and Religions at the University of Macao (2013-16). He is a research fellow of the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung and has been Fulbright-University of Salzburg Distinguished Chair in Intercultural Theology and Study of Religions.
Brief Academic Biography
William Franke trained in philosophy and theology at Williams College and Oxford University and in comparative literature at UC Berkeley and at Stanford (Ph.D. 1991). He has published philosophical and theological interpretations of epoch-making poets, ancient to modern, including Virgil, Dante, Chaucer, Shakespeare, Milton, Blake, Yeats; Leopardi, Manzoni, Montale; Racine, Baudelaire, Jabès; Hölderlin, Rilke, Celan; Dickinson, Eliot, and Stevens. He has also published theoretical essays in hermeneutics and dialectics, treating such subjects as figurative rhetoric, dialectical and deconstructive logic, negative theology, dialogue, and psychoanalysis as a hermeneutics of subjectivity.
His books include, first, Dante’s Interpretive Journey, published in 1996 in the Religion and Postmodernism series of the University of Chicago Press. It elaborates an existential theory of interpretation that critiques modern hermeneutic theories, particularly those of Heidegger and Gadamer, on the basis of the medieval theological vision of the Divine Comedy. It is followed-up by Dante and the Sense of Transgression: “The Trespass of the Sign” (Bloomsbury [Continuum], 2013), which considers deconstructive theories of language and literature in relation to the Paradiso and develops a critical negative theology of language and literature. Two further books extend Franke’s interpretation of poetry as theological revelation in oppositely oriented historical directions: The Revelation of Imagination: From the Bible and Homer through Virgil and Augustine to Dante (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2015) develops this mode of humanities knowing out of Dante’s own essential source texts in antiquity and the Middle Ages, while Secular Scriptures: Modern Theological Poetics in the Wake of Dante (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2016) traces the extension Dante’s theological vision into the modern era of secularized prophetic poetry and poetics
Franke’s two-volume anthology-cum-history-and-theory, On What Cannot Be Said (Notre Dame University Press, 2007), proposes a synoptic view of the Western tradition of apophatic discourse from Plato to postmodernism. His own apophatic philosophy is developed more directly in A Philosophy of the Unsayable (University of Notre Dame Press, 2014). Another critical-philosphical monograph, Poetry and Apocalypse (Stanford University Press, 2009), offers a theological reading of poetic language in the Christian epic tradition from the Bible and Dante to James Joyce. It grounds this critical interpretation philosophically in a negative theology of poetic language. The openness to apocalypse entailed by this outlook is shown to be key to genuine dialogue between cultures. Such intercultural dialogue is centrally the concern of the forthcoming monograph Apophatic Paths from Europe to China: Regions Without Borders.
He has been Visiting Associate Professor of Comparative Literature at the University of Hong Kong (Fall 2005) and Fulbright Distinguished Chair in Intercultural Theology and Study of Religions at the University of Salzburg (Spring 2007). He is a research fellow of the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung (1994-95), a senior fellow of the International Institute for Hermeneutics (IIH), and has received international fellowships also from the Camargo Foundation (Fall 1999), and the Bogliasco Foundation (Spring 2006, Fellow in Philosophy). He has been Professor of French-in-residence at Vanderbilt-in-France in Aix-en-Provence (2008) and a member of the Dante Society Council by general election of the Dante Society of America.
My Intellectual Project
This initial project, through fairly exhaustive exploration of its central concern, led me to the limits of the concept of interpretation. Consequently, much of my subsequent work has been concerned with the question of what resists all efforts of interpretation and therefore of saying—or, in other words, with the “beyond” of language. This topic of “ineffability” becomes arguably Dante’s main preoccupation in his final work, the Paradiso, and I realized that to complete my speculative engagement with the Divine Comedy, I required another theoretical paradigm beyond hermeneutics, beyond philosophies of interpretation. To this end, I undertook to investigate the problem of ineffability in ancient and medieval tradition but also in modern thought and culture generally, since we approach our past always only in and through our present.
On this topic, I composed a two-volume anthology-cum-history-and-theory entitled: On What Cannot Be Said: Apophatic Discourses in Philosophy, Religion, Literature and the Arts (vol. 1: Classical Formulations; vol. 2: Modern and Contemporary Transformations). It was published in 2007 by the University of Notre Dame Press. The prefaces present a theoretical framework defining apophasis as a genre (Volume 1) and as a mode (Volume 2) of discourse. The introductions propose a historical outline of apophasis as the pivot for an alternative history of Western thought, the history of what was never written nor explicitly said and yet conditioned and impinged on, from beyond the threshold of language, all discourse and theory in this intellectual tradition. Twenty-seven principle authors and their seminal texts are introduced in each volume. The series begins from Plato and the Neoplatonic commentaries on the Parmenidesand moves through medieval and baroque mysticisms, which are compared to Kabbalah and Sufi mysticism, in Volume 1. Volume 2 treats poets of the unsayable from Hölderlin and Dickinson through Rilke and Celan, along with philosophers of the limits of language, including Wittgenstein, Rosenzweig, Weil, Levinas, Derrida, and Marion. It also considers theories by Schoenberg, Jankélévitch, Adorno, and Cage of how music verges upon silence, and it sounds negative discourses of architecture and painting as conceived by Malevich, Kandinsky, and van der Rohe, among others.
I pursue the limits of language and interpretation further, marking their tension with the exigencies of poetic disclosure and religious revelation, in my next published monograph. Poetry and Apocalypse: Theological Disclosures of Poetic Language offers an interdisciplinary synthesis, combining a philosophical theory of dialogue (worked out in dialogue with the theory of Jürgen Habermas); a literary-critical interpretation of poetic language in the apocalyptic tradition; and a negative theology that renews certain fundamental impulses and insights of revealed religion. It is concerned with finding the premises for dialogue between cultures, especially between religious fundamentalisms, like the Islamic, and modern Western secularism. The common ground is found precisely in connection with the unsayable, where no party to the discussion can impose its own terms. The thesis is that dialogue in general, in order to be genuinely open, needs to be able to open up to such a possibility as religious apocalypse in ways that can be understood best through the experience of poetic language. Poetic language in a tradition traced from the Bible through Dante, Milton, and Blake to Finnegans Wake enacts a breaking down of all humanly manipulated systems of communication in an apocalyptic opening to what is absolute and beyond saying. The book interprets the Christian epic and prophetic tradition as a secularization of religious revelation that nevertheless preserves an understanding of the essentially apocalyptic character of truth and its disclosure in history. The usually neglected negative theology that underwrites this apocalyptic tradition provides the key to a radically new and open understanding of apocalypse as inextricably religious and poetic at the same time.
Further Perspectives on my Work and its Future
I have been interested in the connections between humanities disciplines over the whole arc of development of Western culture, as well as in comparative perspectives with non-Western cultures (for instance, in my essay on Mahatma Gandhi ‘s ethics and the postcolonial discourse of Edward Said and in my course at the University of Salzburg on Apophaticism East and West, dealing with oriental expressions such as Advaita Vedanta, Nargajuna’s Buddhism, and the Tao). The point of my scholarship has not been to establish definitive details so much as to grasp the epochal movement of humanities knowledge across different disciplines down through the ages.
This scope has been made possible partlcularly by my teaching roles in humanities and comparative literature. At Vanderbilt in comparative literature for the first fifteen years of my teaching carrer, as well as in a number of teaching appointments abroad, I have been responsible not for some specialized field like medieval Italian literature. This would have been the case for me in a national literature department at most major universities, but my appointment from the outset was rather to a comparative literature program at a moderate-sized research university. My training in Italian and especially in Dante placed me in the center of Western humanities tradition, yet I was more often called upon to speak to the interests of students in modern literature and theory. A great part of my publications are in fact on modern poetry and thought. However, my most concentrated knoweldge is in ancient and medieval culture, and these backgrounds have likewise proved continuously fruitful. My training in philosophical theology, moreover, has helped me to elaborate a comprehensive view of literature as disclosure of truth modeled on prophetic revelation from its inception in both Greco-Roman and Judeo-Christian cultural matrices. Viewed together, the various components of my work propose in embryo a religious philosophy of the humanities.
My backgrounds in philosophy and theology, acquired early on in my career, have enabled me to undertake such a project. Having earned a BA in philosophy from Williams College, I pursued studies to the master’s level at Oxford University. I have continued theological study, oftentimes in the context of sojourns in various religious communities, including monastic orders and evangelical seminars. I have also participated in philosophy colloquia and summer sessions, for instance, repeatedly at the Istituto italiano per gli studi filosofici in Naples and the Collegium Phenomenologicum in Perugia, Italy, as well as in France at Cerisy (Centre Culturel International) and Evian (International Philosophy Colloquium). I have been helped to envisage contemporary issues in theory and culture concretely in a global perspective thanks especially to long-term residential fellowships in Potsdam (Germany), Cassis (France), and Bogliasco (Italy), as well as to semester-long appointments as Visiting Associate Professor of Comparative Literature at the University of Hong Kong and as Fulbright Distinguished Chair in Intercultural Theology and Study of Religion at the University of Salzburg.
The Hong Kong appointment permitted me, furthermore, to participate in international conferences well beyond Europe and North America in Kuala Lampur, Malasia, in Canberra, Australia, and in Udaipur, India, and in each case I contributed to resulting publications with reflections touching on international aspects of literary study and theory. At the University of Salzburg, I lectured on Intercultural Theology and taught seminars in German, and I am invited for the future to teach in German on modern atavisms of ancient myths in the Department of Comparative Literature at the University of Tübingen. I have also taught French literature and Existentialism as Professor of French-in-residence at Vanderbilt-in-France in Aix-en-Provence (2008).
- Bogliasco Pictures
- An offer I can’t refuse
- Press release re/ Fulbright
- Hermeneutica Advisory Board
- Lecture in Intercultural Theology, Salzburg 2007
- Comparative Literature at Vanderbilt ranked #1 in the nation in 2005
- Pictures Vanderbilt-in-France w/Anamaria
- Dante and Transgression.mht
- Dante and Transgression.MSW.doc